BLM Rangeland Administration System (RAS)


Wild Horses & Burros
Government Accounting Office (GAO)
Improvements Needed in Federal Wild Horse Program
(GAO/RCED-90-110, August 1990)

Observations on Management of Federal Wild Horse Program
Testimony and Statement of James Duffas III, Director
(GAO/T-RCED-91-185BR, June 1991)
Current Formula Keeps Grazing Fees Low
(GAO/RCED-91-185BR, June 1991)
Assessment of Nevada Consulting Firm's Critique of Three GAO Reports
(GAO/RCED-82-178R, May 4, 1992)

Congressional Requesters/Contacts and Documents Reviewed
(GAO/RCED-92-193R, May 4, 1992)

Results of Recent Work Addressing the Performance of Land Management Agencies
(GAO/RCED-92-60, May 12, 1992)

Effective Long-Term Options Needed To Manage Unadoptable Wild Horses (GAO-09-77, October 2008)

Office of the Inspector General

Management of Herd Levels, Wild Horse & Burro Program, BLM, #97-I-1104_August 1997

The Adopt-A-Horse-Program, Audit Report (Report No. 98-I-419), April 1998
BLM WH&B Program_#C-IS-BLM-0018-2010_December 2010

National Academy of Science (NAS)

Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros: Current Knowledge and Recommended Research, Phase I Final Report, May 8, 1981

Wild Free-Roaming Horses & Burros: Final Report, January 12, 1983

Wild Horse Populations: Field Studies in Genetics and Fertility, September 30, 1991


PEER_Horse Slaughter_Anatomy of a Cover within the Wild Horse & Burro Program_Bureau of Land Management_April 1997

The Use of Helicopters To Remove Wild Horses & Burros From Public Lands_6-07

C.R. MacDonald

America's Mustangs & Burros: What's Left, The High Cost of Miscalculating and Will They Survive? Summary Report: Method Overview & Alternative Populations, Revised 2009

American Mustangs & Burros: Inflated Populations Fiscal Year 2004-2009_Summary

The Jackson Moutains Wild Horses: A Case Study in the Mismanagement of the BLM's Wild Horse and Burro Program

The Thriving Natural Ecological Balance: A Comparative Analysis of Free-Roaming Wild Horses & Burros in Relation to Habitat, Wildlife and Livestock Populations_10-09

Report to Congress_WH&B Program_Refuting FY2011 Budget Justifcations/Request to Defund Roundups_Bowers/Peeples/MacDonald_11-10


Abandoned Horses Report: Deleting The Fiction_Part I
Abandoned Horses: Deleting The Fiction_Part II

Investigative Report: Suspected Illegal Exports of Geldings by Non-Slaughter Shipment From New Mexico to Mexico_11-07





BLM Census Methods_BLM Publication

Options for Managing a Non-Breeding Component within Self-Sustaining Herds of Wild Horses_Draft_July 2006

BLM Team Conference Calls: FOIA-Discussions of WH&B Program Strategies_7-08

BLM_Wild Horse & Burro Program_Alternative Management Options_10/08

Public Comments

National Wild Horse & Burro Strategy Development_C.MacDonald_7-29-10

Fiscal Year Adoptions, Removals and Free-Roaming Populations

1996 Adoptions & Removals
1996 Free-Roaming Populations

1997 Adoptions & Removals
1997 Free-Roaming Populations

1998 Adoptions & Removals
1998 Free-Roaming Populations

1999 Adoptions & Removals
1999 Free-Roaming Populations

2000_Adoptions, Removals, Free-Roaming Populations

2001 Adoptions & Removals
2001 Free-Roaming Populations

2002 Adoptions & Removals
2002 Free-Roaming Populations

2003 Adoptions & Removals
2003 Free-Roaming Populations

2004 Adoptions & Removals
2004 Free-Roaming Populations

2005 Adoptions & Removals
2005 Free-Roaming Populations

2006 Adoptions & Removals
2006 Free-Roaming Populations

2007 Adoptions & Removals
2007 Free-Roaming Populations

2008 Adoptions & Removals
2008 Free-Roaming Populations

2009 Adoptions & Removals
Note: As of FY2009, BLM stopped publishing the free-roaming population report.

2010 Adoptions & Removals

Gather Schedules

BLM operates on a Fiscal Year cycle from 10/01 to 9/30 of each year. Beginning in Fiscal Year 2005, BLM began creating a "Gather Schedule", which is an internal document used by BLM to both schedule and record national wild horse and burro removals and BLM uses two main Gather Schedules every year.

The first Gather Schedule is the "Preliminary", which is issued on or about October 1st each year and this document is designed to give BLM an overview of herds and HMAs that are on the horizon for removals. The Preliminary Gather Schedule is always subject to change as emergency removals such as wildfires, drought, etc. may cause BLM to re-shuffle, postpone or accelerate their initial plans from October that require them to modify the originally scheduled removals. A Preliminary Gather Schedule for a fiscal year is actually drafted a few months prior to the actual year it is being targeted for. For example, a Preliminary Gather Schedule for the official fiscal year of 2006 will actually be published in October 2005.

The second Gather Schedule is BLMs "Final Gather Schedule", which is the actual end result of last fiscal years management actions, also produced on or about October 1st of each year. This Schedule provides the "Final" numbers of actual wild horse and burro removals during the last fiscal year. Also, BLM has previously used a yellow highlight to distinguish wild burro removals from wild horse removals so herds marked in yellow indicate wild burro removals only.

2006_Preliminary Gather Schedule

2006 Final Gather Schedule

2007 Preliminary Gather Schedule

2007 Final Gather Schedule

2008 Preliminary Gather Schedule

2008 Final Gather Schedule

2009 Preliminary Gather Schedule

2009 Final Gather Schedule

2010 Preliminary Gather Schedule

2010 Final Gather Schedule

2011 Preliminary Gather Schedule

Facility Chart Reports:
Short Term & Long Term Holding Inventory

December 2006

July 2007

February 2008

June 2008

February 2009

April 2009

September 2009

October 2009

February 2010

August 2010

Short Term/Long Term Holding EA's & FONSI's

Fallon Short-Term Holding Facilities, Final EA, October 2009

Fallon Short-Term Holding Facilities, FONSI, October 2009

Ennis LTH Pasture, Preliminary EA, November 2009

Ennis LTH Pasture, Final EA and DR/FONSI, December 2009

Mission Ridge LTH Pasture, Final EA, DR/FONSI, November 2009

Mount Ayr LTH Pasture, Final EA, DR/FONSI, October 2009

Capture Status Reports

BLM Capture Status Report 2007: AHDF FOIA

BLM Facility Codes: 2007, AHDF FOIA

BLM WH&B Sold_January 1, 2006 - October 10, 2007, AHDF FOIA

Research Documents on BLM Capture Status

2006/2007 Wild Horse & Burro Capture Status Comparison Chart, 2010

NV0521 Deer Lodge Canyon HMA, Capture Status Comparison Chart

NV0408 Jakes Wash HMA, Capture Status Comparison Chart
Wilson Creek Complex Wild Horse Death Toll Chart, 2007


In 2004, BLM began publishing statistical data related to the Wild Horse & Burro Program, which included acreage, estimated populations and Appropriate Management Levels (AMLs). At this time, two sets of Herd Area/Herd Management Area data was reported. The first report was a National Program Summary of state totals including acreage, populations and AMLs but individual Herd Area/Herd Management Area statistics were published in separate documents arranged by state. In 2008, BLM combined these two reports into a single document. Therefore, between 2004 and 2007, individual Herd Area/Herd Management Area statistical data is provided in separate documents while publications from 2008 combine both the national summary as well as the individual data for each Herd Area/Herd Management Area by state.

Fiscal Year 2004
Note: While BLM continues to publish adoption, removal and population reports dating back from 1996 or earlier in the Program, they eliminated the 2004 HA/HMA statistical data from public electronic access. A cross-referencing of the statistical data between 2004/2005 may suggest why....

2004 National Program Data Summary

Arizona: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

California: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Colorado: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Idaho: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Montana: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Nevada: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

New Mexico: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Oregon: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Utah: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Wyoming: 2004 HA/HMA Statistics

Fiscal Year 2005

2005 National Program Data Summary

Arizona: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

California: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Colorado: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Idaho: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Montana: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Nevada: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

New Mexico: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Oregon: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Utah: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Wyoming: 2005 HA/HMA Statistics

Fiscal Year 2006

2006 National Program Data Summary

Arizona: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

California: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Colorado: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Idaho: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Montana: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Nevada: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

New Mexico: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Oregon: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Utah: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Wyoming: 2006 HA/HMA Statistics

Fiscal Year 2007

2007 National Program Data Summary

Arizona: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

California: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Colorado: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Idaho: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Montana: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Nevada: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

New Mexico: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Oregon: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Utah: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Wyoming: 2007 HA/HMA Statistics

Fiscal Year 2008

2008 National Program Data Summary

Arizona: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

California: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Colorado: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Idaho: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Montana: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Nevada: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

New Mexico: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Oregon: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Utah: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Wyoming: 2008 HA/HMA Statistics

Fiscal Year 2009

2009 National Program Data Summary

Fiscal Year 2010

2010 National Program Data Summary



Bitner HMA

Wild Horse Capture Plan_Final EA_9-05
Wild Horse Removals_FONSI/DR_2005
NOPA_Wild Horse Removals_Scoping_5-15-09

Buckhorn HMA

Comments to BLM

Comments to BLM_Massacre Lakes, Buckhorn and Carter Reservoir_CRM_10-10-07

Carter Reservoir HMA

Comments to BLM

Comments to BLM_Massacre Lakes, Buckhorn and Carter Reservoir_CRM_10-10-07

High Rock HMA

Preliminary EA_Wild Horse Removals_6-24-06

Massacre Lakes HMA

NOPA_Wild Horse Removals_5-18-07

NOPA_Wild Horse Removals_Scoping_5-15-09

Monitoring Evaluation_Massacre Lakes Allotment & Massacre Lakes HMA_4/06/10

Massacre Lakes_Livestock Allotment & HMA_Rangeland Health Assessment_4-07-10

Comments to BLM

Comments to BLM_Massacre Lakes, Buckhorn and Carter Reservoir_CRM_10-10-07

Nut Mountain HMA

Wild Horse Capture Plan_Final EA_9-05
Wild Horse Removals_FONSI/DR_2005
NOPA_Wild Horse Removals_Scoping_5-15-09

Wall Canyon HMA

Wild Horse Capture Plan_Final EA_9-05
Wild Horse Removals_FONSI/DR_2005
NOPA_Wild Horse Removals_Scoping_5-15-09

Pryor Mountains
BLM Pryor PZP Charts 2001-2007

PZP Results Comments: Cloud Foundation_4-12-07


Calico Complex

Livestock Allotments

Pauite Meadows Livestock Allotment

Final Multiple Use Decision_10-15-03

Soldier Meadows Livestock Allotment

Soldier Meadows_Notice of Full Force and Effect Multiple Use Decision_1-24-94
Soldier Meadows Allotment Grazing Permit Renewal_PreEA_5-07
Soldier Meadows Allotment Grazing Permit_DR/FONSI_1-14-08


IBLA_Notice of Appeal, Statement of Reasons & Emergency Request for Expedited Petition For Stay_1st Filing_12-21-09
IBLA_BLM Request for Response Extension_12-29-09
BLM Extension Granted_1-13-10
IBLA_BLM Motion to Dismiss Petition of Stay_Lack of Standing_1-12-10
IBLA_Appellants Response to Respondents Motion To Dismiss/Evidence of Standing_1-15-10
IBLA_BLM Response to Appellants Evidence of Standing_1-19-10
IBLA 2010-46_Cindy R. MacDonald, ET. AL_Order_Final Ruling_2-04-10

Ruby Pipeline
Ruby Pipeline Projected Water Sources_Extracted from Final EIS
Letter from Ruby Pipeline to BLM_3-31-09
FERC_Ruby Response Letter_9-14-09
Draft Ruby Pipeline Migratory Bird Conservation Plan_10-09
Draft Conservation Agreement_Sheldon-Hart NWR_Ruby Pipeline/ONDA_6-28-10

Gold Butte HMA
Gold Butte Census_Cover Page_12-07

Jackson Mountain HMA

Jackson Mt. Wild Horse Gather_FONSI/DR_8-07-07
Jackson Mountain Wild Horses: Questions and Answers

Livestock Allotments
Biological Assessment/Happy Creek Allotment Livestock Grazing Permit_8-07

Happy Creek Grazing Allotment Renewal_Proposed Decision_8-05-08

Wilder/Quinn Grazing Allotment Authorization_RAS Doc

New Pass/Ravenswood HMA
New Pass/Ravenswood_Precloseout Report_1-04-08

Caliente Complex
Caliente Complex Gather: Interested Party Letter 6-11-09

Owyee HMA
Livestock Allotments
Owyhee Allotment_Field Observation Summary_12_08

Roberts Mountain HMA

Assessment of Existing and Current Conditions for the Proposed 3-Bar Ecosystem and Landscape Restoration Project: Environmental Impact Statement_12-09
Livestock Allotments
Roberts Mountain Allotment Grazing Authorization (Three Bar Ecosystem)_RAS Document

Rock Creek HMA
Wild Horse Gather_Interested Party Letter_4-23-09


Sheepshead/Heath Creek HMA
Sheepshead/Heath Creek Post-Gather Report_11-08

South Steens HMA
South Steens Post-Gather Report_I_7-30-09
South Steens Post-Gather Report_II_Edited by BLM_7-06-10


Wild Horse Territories (WHT)
Notice of Proposed Action: Wild Horse & Burro Appropriate Management Levels (AMLs), Austin and Tonopah Ranger Districts, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, 2-24-10(Includes Kelly Creek, Butler Basin, Dobbin Summit, Sevenmile, Little Fish Lake, Monitor North, Stone Cabin, Monitor South, Northumberland, Burro and Toquima WHT's and Little Fish Lake, North Monitor, Sevenmile, Salsbury, Stone Cabin, and Hickson HMA's)


Sheldon Wildlife Refuge

USFWS Official Documents
Sheldon Horse Management Plan/EA_Final_11-23-77
Horse & Burro Management at Sheldon NWR_Draft EA_4-07
Horse & Burro Management, Sheldon_Final EA_6-07
Horse & Burro Management, Sheldon_FONSI_6-07
Horse & Burro Management at Sheldon NWR_Revised Draft EA_9-07
Horse & Burro Management, Revised, Final_4-08
Horse & Burro Management, Sheldon, FONSI_4-08

Alerts/Public Comments
Alert_Recommendations for Comments_Author-Publication Date Unknown

Public Comments_Horse & Burro Management_C.MacDonald_5-10-07
Public Comments_C.MacDonald_Horse & Burro Management_9-26-07
Public Comments_Comprehensive Conservation Plan_Sheldon NWR_C.MacDonald_6-30-08


Barnett_2002_Sheldon Horse Impact Study

Draft Conservation Agreement_Sheldon-Hart NWR_Ruby Pipeline/ONDA_6-28-10

Hart Mountain_Livestock Analysis_S.Herman_2004

Resource Management Plans

Winnemucca Field Office

Public Comments_Draft_C.MacDonald_10-21-10

From Congress About Sheldon Horse & Burro Management
Congressional Letter to USFWS_Sheldon_7-19-06

Laura Leigh vs. Ken Salazar_9-02-09

Articles (Sheldon-Hart Wildlife Refuge)

Interagency Policies for Wild Horse and Burro Management_Case Study_V. Pfeiffer_12-12-05
Nevada Bighorns Unlimited_Oppose Sheldon Wild Horses_1-23-08


Assessing the Full Cost of the Federal Grazing Program, Moskowitz, MBA and Romaniello, MS AG. Econ._October 2002
Livestock Grazing: Federal Expenditures and Receipts Vary, Depending on the Agency and the Purpose of the Fee Charged, GAO-06-869_September 2005
Updating the Animal Unit Month_J.Carter_WWP_3-17-08


Threats to Desert Tortoise Populations: A Critical Review of The Literature_USGS_8-09-02"No published studies were found that investigated the impact burros or horses...have on tortoise populations...." pp.57


AHDF_Salazar Plan_Pro's & Con's_10-21-09
AWI: Words to Keep Them Wild and Free
SOWH Point Paper_DOI/BLM Wild Horse & Burro Program Investigation, Independent Census and Moratorium_10-19-09


Census Slashes BLM WIld Horse Count_Keith Rogers_10-14-92

Description of General Management Processes_C.MacDonaldNote: Currently, I have yet to find any authority granted to BLM to "zero out" a wild horse/burro Herd Area or revoke its HMA status, either in law or regulations, which allows BLM to overturn the Wild Free-Roaming Horse & Burro Act's Congressional mandate that wild horses and burros must be preserved in the areas "where presently found".

Wild Free-Roaming Horse & Burro Act (WFRHBA)

Federal Lands Management Policy Act (FLMPA)Public Rangelands Improvement Act (PRIA)
National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA)
Threatened & Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Other Guiding Laws & Regulations

Code of Federal Regulations 43 CFR 1600 Land Use Planning
Code of Federal Regulations: 43 CFR 4700 Wild Horse & Burro Management
Code of Federal Regulations 43 CFR 4100 Livestock Grazing Management
Federal Register



Colorado Wild Horse & Burro Coalition, Inc. et al., V. Salazar_Memorandum Opinion_Collyer_8-05-09

Interior Board of Land Appeals (IBLA)

172 IBLA 128_Wild Horse Organized Assistance_8-02-07


From Congress
Congressional Letter to USFWS_Sheldon_7-19-06
Senator Boxer to Secretary Salazar_2-19-10
Congressional Letter to BLM to Reform WH&B Roundup Policies_7-30-10

To Congress

Letter Requesting Defunding of Wild Horse & Burro Program_Reasons & Statistics_C.R.MacDonald_3-01-10